causes, outcomes, contingencies, and causal mechanisms, is critically needed to advance knowledge about what works in international conflict resolution. Second, a dialogue between theory and experience, with progress in each leading to refinements in the other, is the best route to improved understanding. Third, a strategy using multiple sources of data and methods of analysis, referred to as “triangulation,” is preferred for increasing confidence in evaluative conclusions.
Many of the substantive studies in Chapters 3 through 14 take up the challenges defined in Chapter 2, making new contributions to knowledge by clarifying concepts; defining types of interventions; stating explicit hypotheses about causes, effects, and causal mechanisms; defining outcome indicators; and so forth. In this respect these chapters may be previews of the directions that the field is likely to take during the first decade of the new millennium.
Below, we briefly summarize the topics and findings of the 12 substantive studies in this book. The summaries are not intended to substitute for the studies; rather, they are intended as a guide to the reader. We group the summaries under the four strategies of conflict resolution previously identified: traditional diplomacy and power politics, conflict transformation, structural prevention, and normative change. This classification is artificial in some cases because some conflict resolution approaches employ more than one of these strategies. For example, truth commissions may promote conflict transformation while also recommending structural prevention measures. These complexities are mentioned below and are more evident in the chapters that follow.
Traditional Diplomacy and Power Politics
Chapters 3 through 6 assess conflict resolution techniques strongly rooted in traditional diplomacy. Chapter 3, for example, focuses on the use and threat of force. It examines the limited ability of the United States, despite its military dominance in the post-Cold War era, to achieve diplomatic objectives through threats of force and limited (exemplary) uses of force. Barry Blechman and Tamara Cofman Wittes explain this paradox of power by identifying a number of conditions that, although neither necessary or sufficient for the success of a U.S. threat, favor the effectiveness of a threat when present.
The authors group these “enabling conditions” into two broad categories: those that make a threat sufficiently credible and those that make it sufficiently potent to overcome the reluctance of foreign leaders to comply with the demand. They conclude that the credibility and the potency of a threat together shape the targeted leaders’ evaluation of the likely costs of complying or not complying.
...Literacy In An Ever-ChangingWorld Being literate, as defined in Webster's New World Dictionary, is "the ability to read and write" or "to be educated". By my own definition, literacy is the ability to read, write, and verbally communicate, while also comprehending those writings, verses, or phrases. However, literacy is not only reading and writing. In order for one to be considered literate in today's society, that person must possess the skill of remembering and understanding what was just said or read. Our American culture demands literacy everyday, from being able to read street signs and signals, to understanding contracts and important forms. One is no longer considered literate in American culture if they are only able to read and write what applies to their personal life. We must now be educated in cultural literacy, computer and technology literacy, and academic literacy. To function and be successful in today's ever-changing society, the average person must rise above the basic meaning of literacy and advance in their understanding of new technology, language, and speech. Most would agree that the skill of becoming literate begins at a very young age, from repeating the Alphabet after a teacher, to learning and remembering the names of animals, to simple word pronunciation. Even in Fishman's essay "Becoming Literate: A Lesson From the Amish", it is evident that children very young were...