Research Paper On The Flute

The major topics for your research papers are:


I.          Origins of American Indians and Their Music

            Examination of creation narratives and folk tales and reading ethnographies of

            selected cultures in order to establish concepts of world view and ideas about

            the origins of music.


II.        Poetry and Song Texts

            Analysis of texts for poetic content and in relation to world view;

            Examination of vocables as poetic and musical devices;

            Discussion of Indian languages and the ways they differ from English.


III.       Cultural Criteria of Music and Musicians

            Discussion of performance forces and instrumental usage: 

            Who performs?  Where?  When?  What constitutes a "good" performance, a

            good song?  Who composes or dreams the songs?  Are the contexts sacred or

            secular?  Do the groups rehearse?  How often?  Is anyone paid for

            performances?  What is the difference between a public and private

            performance?  etc.


IV.       Continuity of Musical Style

            What are the chances that this music will survive?  What factors have helped it

            to survive and which have hindered its survival?  What are some limitations to

            musical change?  Is acculturation occurring? How has this music been

            influenced by outsiders?  Is any aspect of the music in the process of being



Attendance and participation are expected as part of the course requirements and I will call or check the role each class.  The following is a list of ways in which you can engage in class discussion and activity (courtesy of Leland Giovannelli):


                        listening carefully to others

                        offering support of someone's ideas

                        recalling a passage

                        raising a new issue

                        asking for a clarification

                        keeping track of the line of thought

                        noticing that someone is trying to be heard

offering to read aloud

explaining your idea

explaining your confusion

explaining someone else's confusion

First nations and topics for research in MUSC 5142:

1.              Hopi

2.              Tewa

3.              Navajo

4.              Apache

5.              Kwakiutl

6.              Nootka and or Quileute

7.              Tohono Oodham

8.              Lakota (Sioux)

9.              Anishinabe (Ojibwa)

10.           Choctaw/Chickasaw

11.           Creek/Seminole

12.           Pawnee

13.           Blackfoot

14.           Cherokee

15.           Inuit (Eskimo - various groups)

16.           Iroquois (various groups)

17.           Peyote religion

18.           Sun Dance religion

19.           Ghost Dance religion

20.           Flathead

21.           Southern California (various groups)

22.           Great Basin (various groups)

23.           Northern California (various groups)

24.           Athabascan (Alaska and Canada, various groups)

25.           Kiowa

26.           Comanche

27.           Flute music

28.           Hand or Stick Game Songs


Research Papers:  Use as many sources as possible (one or two sources alone do not constitute a research paper).  You may cite liner notes from recordings, as well as your descriptions of songs from your recording summaries (citing the recording). 


Checklist for your topics papers:


1.         Use as many books and articles as possible.   You may want to check the

            following as well:

                                    The Music Index, which is the Music equivalent to the

                        Reader's Guide to Periodical Literature for other subject areas; this is on

CD ROM in the Music Library.  Ask the librarian for help.

                                    Articles in the New GrovesDictionary of Music and Musicians,

                        the major reference music encyclopedia.  Articles in the New Groves

                        have excellent bibliographies which might help you further.  The authors

                        of New Groves articles are usually given at the end of the article.  Cite the

                        author, not the work or the editor.

                                    General encyclopedias, newspapers,  journals (such as the

                        Ethnomusicology Journal), and so forth.  You might find

                        articles on musical cultures in anthropology journals as well.

                                    Selected Reports in Ethnomusicology.  A series on various world

                        music topics, on the shelf in the Music Library.


2.         You may cite recordings.  The Music Library has a wide variety of recordings (audio and video) that you can listen to there.  The Media Library on the 2nd floor of Norlin Library (west entrance) has a large catalog of videos and films.  You must not only listen to these recordings, but must include information about them in your papers.  See the list given above for the recording summaries.  See #3 below for bibliographic format for recordings.  If you are citing a single song, mention also the side and/or band number.


3.         Include a full bibliography at the end of the paper, in bibliographic format, which is alphabetical and indents items on the second and subsequent lines.  Be sure to cite the author of the chapter you have read, not the editor.  Be sure to include recordings as well.  Examples:


Red Tail Chasing Hawks (Calving Standing Bear and James Torres).  Eagle Dances

            with the Wind.  Canyon Records CR-7028, 1995. 


Kaeppler, Adrienne L.  "Polynesian Music and Dance," from Musics of Many

            Cultures, edited by Elizabeth May.  Berkeley:  University of California

            Press, 1980:134-153.  (Include page numbers for essays in anthologies.)


Nettl, Bruno.  "The Music of India." in Excursions in World Music, by Bruno Nettl et al. 

            New Jersey:  Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1996:15-40.  (The et al in this citation tells us

            that there are numerous other authors.)


4.         Provide citations of the works used, either as footnotes, endnotes, or parenthetically.  A paper with no citations automatically starts off with minus 10 pts.

Parenthetical citation means that you cite the author (not the editor or the title of the work), year (if you are citing more than one book by that author), and page numbers in parenthesis as the point of reference, for instance (Nettl  35).  Notice that the period mark follows the citation. 


If you were using two books by Nettl published in different years, you would include the year thus:  (Nettl  1977:121). 


If you had two references published the same year by the same author, you might add an a or b, thus:  (Nettl  1977a:121), or (Nettl  1977b:121). 


If you are citing an interview you conducted, you can cite thus:  (Romero,  personal communication).


For footnotes, superscribe a small number at the point you would like to refer to, then begin the note at the bottom of the page with the corresponding superscribed number at the start of the note. 


For endnotes numbering is the same as for footnotes but they are listed all together in order at the end of the paper.

            You can combine parenthetical citation with footnotes or endnotes.  Use parentheses to cite authors.  Use notes to add interesting information that is related but not central to your paper topic.


5.         Feel free to do visual graphs or representations of the music for purposes of explanation. 


6.         Define and italicize or underline all foreign terms and describe and classify unusual instruments.  (See Sachs-Hornbostel Instrument Classification System below)


7.         Papers should be typed, double-spaced.




Sachs-Hornbostel Instrument Classification System


            Types of chordophones:  to name a few: 

                        musical bow






            Types of aerophones: to name a few: 



                        single or double reed instruments

                        bull roarer


            Types of membranophones:  to name a few: 

                        drums (hourglass shaped, doubled-headed, single-headed, frame drum,

                                    barrel shaped, friction drum, laced drums, pegged drums)




            Types of idiophones:  to name a few: 



                        lamellophones (plucked metal tongues or prongs)

                        steel drums

                        bells and gongs


            Types of electrophones:  to name a few: 





The Flute

The flute is known to be one of the oldest instruments existing.   It serves as the soprano voice in a woodwind choir.   It is twenty seven inches long and has no less than eighteen keys.   It is strategically crafted to produce a consistent tone in all registers.   The range of a flute spans almost 4 octaves from c to g as it relates to tones on a piano.   It is a non- transposing instrument unlike a lot of other woodwinds and hand held instruments. Flutes are usually made out of the most common metal being silver.   Occasionally they are constructed out of ivory, alloys, gold, crystal, acrylic, amber and a wide range of wooden materials.   It is a very popular instrument and is played in all styles of music ranging from classical, jazz and pop.   It is easily carried and is often attributed with possessing tones that sound like the human voice.   In face the earliest flutes were multiply designed in different forms to match the human voices of an ensemble.   The flute also has the most perfected mechanism out of all the woodwind instruments.
Theobald Boehm is the constructor of the modern day flute.   He was traveling in London in 1831 when he heard a man named Charles Nicholson in concert playing a seven, large holed flute to accommodate his large fingers.   After hearing
Nicholson’s amazing sound Boehm set out to design a new and improved flute.   It was in 1832 when he produced his invention of the flute and performed on it in
Munich.   This flute was made out of wood and had large holes that were placed closely together and the holes that had been traditionally closed were opened and were regulated by rings attached to long rods.
Before you even begin to play the flute you must assemble it the correct way or you may cause harm to the instrument.   There are three parts to the instrument. There is the head joint, the body and the foot joint.   Each piece should be inserted into the other carefully with a gentle rotating motion.   The same care should be...

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